Social | Human Rights, Labor Practices
Respecting diversity, equity and inclusion (DE&I)

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Our commitment to DE&I

Since its founding in 1931, the Bridgestone Group has a history of valuing diverse talent and perspectives and has continued to expand the diversity of its global workforce and operations through extension into new markets and acquisitions such as the Firestone Tire & Rubber Company (based in the U.S.) in 1988. The Group believes that diversity will become increasingly important as the Group grows toward its vision: “Toward 2050, Bridgestone continues to provide social value and customer value as a sustainable solutions company.” As stated in the “2030 Long Term Strategic Aspiration - Bridgestone 3.0 Journey -” announced in August 2022, the Group will strive to enhance corporate value by added value creation aligned with its business strategy. At the same time, the Group will accelerate various initiatives based on the Group’s talent strategy, which aims to allow diverse talents to shine through spreading experience and gaining confidence of individuals. The Group will also accelerate various initiatives for diversity, equity and inclusion (DE&I) as one foundation, along with enhancing talent creativity, and creating new DNA.

The Group's Global Human Rights Policy also includes respect for DE&I as a key element. The addition of the term “equity” to the revised policy highlights the Group’s approach of providing equitable opportunities for all people to reach their full potential, based on respect for diversity, teamwork, and respect. The Group is committed to having a firm grasp of equity-related issues at the workplace and in society, and to continuously rectifying these issues in order for diverse talent to shine.

Incorporating diverse perspectives and values in both our global leadership team and our cultivation of next-generation management

The Global Executive Committee (Global EXCO) is the highest global level executive body within the Group overseeing business strategy and execution, and consists of executive officers of the Company and persons responsible for major business entities. With six of its 13 members from countries other than Japan, this committee shows the Group’s respect for the inclusion of diverse perspectives and values in management decision-making. Furthermore, the Group has established a number of committees with global talent as members under Global EXCO.

In order to develop the next generation of management leaders, the Group launched the Bridgestone NEXT 100 in 2020. In this program, approximately 100 talents globally (30 in Japan, 30 in the Americas, 20 in Europe, and 20 in Asia) are selected each year to participate in various management / executive meetings as well as overseas business school training programs. As the Group ensures diversity among this program’s membership, it works to build uniquely Bridgestone-like global management talent to create new DNA. This new DNA is founded on its existing Bridgestone DNA of "Focus on quality," "Respect for being on-site," "Being attentive and supportive of customer problems," and "Challenging spirit."

Cultivating DE&I awareness and culture

The Group has customized DE&I programs that reflect the context, rules, traditions and regulations of the individual countries and regions in which it operates.

Regional initiatives


Bridgestone recognizes that empowering females is a challenge compared to other regions. To tackle this challenge, the company has established the HRX Culture, DE&I Enhancement Department as a dedicated DE&I action owner, while simultaneously strengthening talent investment and culture change as it takes action in this area.

Workshops for spreading DE&I awareness and encouraging supportive behavior

In 2022, DE&I management workshops were held for all line managers, who are key players for promoting DE&I in the workplace. This workshop was designed to enhance understanding of the essence of DE&I, empathy for its promotion, and action. Bridgestone will continue and enhance these workshops in 2023 and beyond. E-learning sessions are also provided for all employees to foster DE&I awareness and culture, covering topics such as unconscious bias and psychological safety.

Introducing a FemTech program

Bridgestone believes that mutual understanding is essential for all employees to work together toward value creation based on teamwork and respect. This understanding is especially important for the various health issues women face at different life stages, which have in some circumstances inhibited their performance and career development. In order to ensure not only female employees but all employees correctly understand and learn the facts about these circumstances, the Company introduced a FemTech program to address women-specific health issues using technology on a trial basis in the Kodaira area of Tokyo from 2022. This program includes seminars for all employees to understand women-specific health issues, and efforts to harness technology to solve these issues. It has been rolled out to the entire Company in 2023. Through these efforts, the Company will continue to develop facilitative and empowering work environments.

Supporting the LGBTQ+ community

In 2021, to create an inclusive work environment for all employees, Bridgestone took steps to ensure that employees in same-sex partnerships have the same access to parental and family care leave as those in opposite-sex marriages. In September 2021 the company updated its childcare and family care guidebook to eliminate gendered words (e.g., dad, mom). At the end of 2021, Bridgestone launched internal ally community activities to build understanding of and provide support to sexual minorities. In April 2022, a number of its ally community members gathered at Tokyo Rainbow Pride to support and celebrate sexual diversity. In addition, the Company disseminates information via its intranet, and regularly holds film screenings and study sessions.

As a result of the above activities, Bridgestone received the highest rating of Gold for five consecutive years in the PRIDE Index, an indicator of how companies have implemented initiatives in Japan to promote LGBTQ+ inclusion in the workplace.

Americas region

Bridgestone Americas (BSAM)’s DE&I strategy consists of three key areas: workplace, workforce and marketplace. In each area, it aims to provide an inclusive work environment, educate leaders and employees, and create equitable opportunities. To help achieve these goals, in 2021 and 2022 BSAM conducted unconscious bias training as a foundational learning program related to DE&I for over 5,000 participants. BSAM also launched two more courses, Conscious Conflict and Empathy training, as secondary and progressive courses to the unconscious bias training. BSAM is also committed to improving transparency by reporting various initiatives and progress through its DE&I Annual Report.

  • Workplace

    Creating an equitable experience for underrepresented groups and an inclusive experience for all.

  • Workforce

    Focusing on the retention, recruitment, and advancement of underrepresented groups.

  • Marketplace

    Doing meaningful business with underrepresented groups in our supplier network that will make a more equitable impact and supporting organizations that advance more equitable opportunities in the communities in which we live, work and play.

BSAM has set a 2030 milestone to ensure that its leadership makes steady progress toward mirroring the employee populations they lead. This long-term goal reflects the understanding that sustainable progress on DE&I often takes five years or longer to achieve. At BSAM, the sustainability of DE&I efforts is critical, and it is committed to making meaningful progress over the short and long-term.

Organization and resources for DE&I Center of Excellence

BSAM has created a dedicated DE&I Center of Excellence with a five-person team focused on enterprise initiatives; creating strategy, tools, and resources for the business; and facilitating training and education to further the DE&I agenda. A Board Committee oversees DE&I progress at the enterprise level and guides the DE&I Center of Excellence along with its strategic framework and accountability measures.

BSAM believes that DE&I is everyone’s responsibility. To that end, in 2021 BSAM launched its “Free to Be” movement that helps employees understand the importance of inclusion and bringing one’s whole self to work. It will continue to promote initiatives to increase racial and gender diversity, embed DE&I into the business, and create an even more equitable and inclusive work environment. These priorities will be accomplished with the direct employee input, including from its employee resource groups (ERGs):

  • BBOLD — African American/Black employees
  • BWIN — Women employees
  • BNEXT — Employees at any level of leadership
  • BBRAVO — Veteran employees
  • BUNIDOS — Latin/Hispanic employees
  • BPROUD — LGBTQ+ employees

The ERGs bring together employees and allies based on shared characteristics, life experiences, and interests and are critical in helping BSAM value employee differences. Each has the autonomy to define its purpose and programming, including community outreach and volunteering, mentoring and development opportunities, and networking.

BSAM has also sponsored the PRIDE Festival in Nashville for over a decade.

Initiatives and results in transparent disclosure

In 2022, BSAM released its second annual report on DE&I. To provide continued transparency on BSAM’s DE&I-related efforts and results, the report includes a DE&I scorecard showing diversity representation at all levels and functions of BSAM’s organization in 2022. BSAM recognizes that while it has made progress in recent years, including an increase in female representation and racial representation across all levels, much progress is still needed. This transparent disclosure represents a visible commitment to accountability for making the long-term, sustainable progress that is needed.

In 2023 and beyond, BSAM is focused on improving representation of racial and gender diversity, continuing to educate leaders with resources and experiential learning, embedding DE&I into ways of operating in the business and with customers, and ensuring that employees feel that their workplace is equitable and inclusive.

BSAM foresees potential challenges as resignations in the U.S. continue to increase and labor shortages persist in pivotal areas of BSAM’s business and operations, including technical fields. BSAM plans to overcome them by focusing on retention and development strategies and partnering with organizations to cultivate relationships and grow a broader talent pipeline, with a focus on traditionally underrepresented.

Europe, Middle East, India and Africa

Bridgestone EMIA (BSEMIA) believes that a diverse work environment creates a better understanding of its customers, greater employee engagement, decision-making that includes diverse perspectives, and innovative ideas that lead to better outcomes. It is working to create an environment where all employees feel safe and included so they can contribute at their best. Via its employee resource groups (ERGs), BSEMIA wants to involve employees in building an even-more inclusive culture. In 2023, BSEMIA will promote initiatives to respect diversity with a particular focus on three groups: gender, seniority and experience.

BSEMIA has set two milestones. A 2025 milestone to have gender balanced hiring practices for indirect staff, and a 2030 milestone to ensure that its leadership makes steady progress toward mirroring the employee populations they lead. These long-term goals reflect the understanding that sustainable progress on DE&I is often a process that takes several years.

Organization and resources for DE&I Center of Expertise

BSEMIA has created a dedicated DE&I Center of Expertise with a team focused on enterprise-wide initiatives; creating strategy, tools, and resources for the business; and facilitating training and education to further the DE&I agenda. In 2022 BSEMIA launched the “Free to Be” movement that helps employees understand the importance of inclusion and bringing one’s whole self to work. It will continue to promote initiatives to increase diversity and embed DE&I into the business, and create an even more equitable and inclusive work environment. These priorities will be accomplished with the direct employee input, including from its ERGs:

  • BWIN — Women employees
  • BPROUD — LGBTQ+ employees

The ERGs bring together employees and allies based on shared characteristics, life experiences, and interests and are critical in helping BSEMIA value employee differences. Each has the autonomy to define its purpose and programming, including community outreach and volunteering, mentoring and development opportunities, and networking.

Initiatives and results in 2022 and plans for 2023 and beyond

BSEMIA has achieved a high level of cultural diversity. This is the result of decisions made by management over the last eight years to build an international business run by local experts, regardless of their nationality or cultural background. As a result, nearly all nationalities from the region are represented in BSEMIA’s headquarters and across its many geographies. Workstreams in the area of awareness and communication, talent acquisition, talent management, training and development and benefits have furthermore strengthened BSEMIA’s DE&I efforts and have led to increased visibility and career opportunity for underrepresented groups.

  • Certification in “Great Place To Work”:

    BSEMIA was recognized as a Top Employer and Great Place To Work in 2022 in multiple countries.

  • efr


    Bridgestone Spain was recognized as a certified Family Responsible Company (efr certification) by the Fundación MásFamilia, an independent organization.

  • Level 1 Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE)* in South Africa:

    Bridgestone South Africa (Pty) Ltd. (BSAF) achieved this highest rating in the certification which recognizes BSAF's efforts to include African people in the workforce, support African businesses and give back to underserved African communities.

* B-BBEE: A mandatory governmental program that encourages businesses to integrate African people in the workspace, support African businesses, and give back to African communities affected by land repossession during apartheid.

China, Asia-Pacific region

Bridgestone China, Asia Pacific (BSCAP) is undertaking DE&I initiatives based on the philosophy of Right Person in the Right Position with the Right Skills. Its intent is to draw out the ambitions and abilities of individuals to the fullest and identify the most suitable talent for each position. BSCAP embraces diversity in gender, nationality and experience creating an inspiring working environment for talent.

BSCAP leverages talent analytics in an annual talent review process to understand as a region collectively and by group company the current representation of gender, experience, nationality, and generation diversity to build its talent pipeline.

BSCAP employees can express their voice by participating in a regional Employee Engagement Survey that aim to foster a high-performing organizational culture.

Equal opportunity in career and development

BSCAP drives DE&I in career and talent development through increasing awareness and education. There was steady progression of female representation in BSCAP leadership program from 2019 to 2022.

Supporting the empowerment of females

In a society and market where values are becoming increasingly diverse, the Group believes that in order to continuously provide social and customer value, it is important being attentive and supportive of customer problems and for its diverse talent to shine in its wide range of business areas and for the organization to incorporate diversity in its decision-making process. From this perspective, the Group is focusing on empowering females and developing female leaders, while considering the conditions in each individual region and country where it operates.

As of December 2022, the percentage of female employees in each of the Group's segments was as follows, showing a steady year-on-year increase for the Group overall.

Female percentage*1 Top management positions*2   Other staff and positions Group total
Management positions*3 Junior management positions*4 Total
Japan*5 6.1% 4.3% 6.4% 5.3% 13.6% 12.2%
Americas 25.5% 23.2% 10.4% 14.8% 12.3% 12.6%
Europe, Russia, Middle East, India and Africa 15.1% 14.6% 18.8% 17.6% 11.8% 12.6%
China, Asia Pacific 12.6% 19.0% 23.6% 22.8% 8.7% 9.7%
Total (parentheticals indicate the previous year’s figures) 10.7%
11.6% 12.5% 12.1%
  1. Ratios are based on full-time Group employees. Data (as of as of December 31, 2022) covers from 128,811 employees (99.4% of the Group).
  2. “Top management positions” refers to employees with a reporting line no more than two levels below the CEO in each company.
  3. “Management positions” includes all managerial positions, except for those in “Top management positions” and “Junior management positions.”
  4. “Junior management positions” refers to first-line managers, who are responsible for supervising day-to-day performance target of the organization.
  5. Japan" includes "Japan," "Other" and "Company-wide (common)" segments in the Annual Securities Report.

Regional initiatives


Bridgestone recognizes that there is a gap in the ratio of female employees and female managers*1 in Japan compared to its overseas locations. Therefore, the Company is focusing its efforts on stronger recruitment of female employees and retaining and empowering them by their work-life balance. Furthermore, the Company is focusing on appointing more female managers. Its target is to increase the ratio of female managers*2 at the Company from 2.3% in 2020 to 7.5% by 2025. As of December 2022, this ratio was 3.4%. The Company is steadily implementing various initiatives, including the mentoring program described below, to achieve the target.

  1. Female managers at the Company refers to line managers (at executive and management levels), specialists and coordinators.
  2. The Company’s target and result for the percentage of female managers includes those seconded to other regions or other companies belonging to the Company.

Introducing an officer mentor system for female manager candidates

As one of its initiatives in this area, Bridgestone introduced an officer mentor system in 2021. In this system, officer mentors provide career support for female manager candidates. In the two years since its introduction, 36 candidates have been eligible for the system, and more than half of these have been promoted as of January 2023.

Support for cultivating female leaders in partnership with Ochanomizu University

In 2017, Bridgestone concluded a comprehensive agreement with Ochanomizu University to support the cultivation of female leaders.

Specific initiatives in this agreement are as follows.

  1. Cultivating young talents who will become the next generation of female leaders
  2. Building the capabilities of current female leaders who hold leadership positions in their respective organizations
  3. Talent networking

In April 2019, the Future Starting Point Project was launched to help cultivate the next generation of female leaders. This project is centered on the Future Starting Point Seminar, a social collaboration course offered at Ochanomizu University. It is unique in that it mutually utilizes the resources of both Ochanomizu University and its participants, as they present and exchange opinions and explore the class content.

China, Asia-Pacific region

BSCAP implements the following initiatives.

Women’s empowerment and advancement

BSCAP has set an aspirational goal to increase female representation in management roles to 20% by the end of 2022. It aims to provide women with equal opportunities to showcase their capability and capacity to deliver the expectations of each role. As shown in the above chart, in 2022, BSCAP achieved the target (22.8% in Management and Junior Management position). BSCAP’s regional HQ, Singapore location, showed 30% at the highest, China location is 25% and as a result, eight out of 13 group companies exceeded 20% females in management roles.

Diversity and inclusiveness in recruitment and talent attraction: female representation

BSCAP group companies have on-going programs and initiatives to attract female workforce in several markets.

  • Vietnam: advanced to 30% in 2022 versus 2015 (0%) female representation for Operator.
  • Australia and New Zealand: have active recruitment and hiring campaigns to promote career opportunities in the tire industry. Promote hiring of female tire technicians with employee ambassador sharing personal career journey experience.

International Women’s Day (IWD)

BSCAP has been commemorating International Women’s Day (IWD) since 2019 and advocating it annually through a more structured and consistent approach across the 10 countries of BSCAP. SBU guidelines were launched for group companies to promote the celebration of women’s empowerment and achievements and to showcase its on-going commitment to women’s equality. BSCAP’s annual participation in IWD, which is supported globally by industry, governments, educational institutions and community groups to recognize the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women, is part of the mission to raise awareness on women’s challenges to help forge a gender-equal world.

IWD promotional poster by BSCAP employees

Hiring people with disabilities

In March 2021 the Group joined The Valuable 500, a global initiative launched at the 2019 World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos. The Valuable 500 aims to help business leaders transform their businesses and unlock the social and economic value of people living with disabilities around the world. It gained the endorsement of the CEOs of 500 companies worldwide. The concept of The Valuable 500, which respects diversity and promotes inclusion, has much in common with the Group’s corporate philosophy and is in line with the intended direction of its Global Human Rights Policy.

Sharing the belief of The Valuable 500 with other world leaders, the Group will strengthen its diversity initiatives, including building a diverse workplace that empowers employees with disabilities. The Group will work to create a more inclusive society that promotes good physical and mental health through co-creation with communities and strategic partners.

Regional initiatives


In 2004, Bridgestone established Bridgestone Empowerment Co., Ltd., a special subsidiary for the purpose of employing people with disabilities, and Bridgestone is actively working to hire people with disabilities. In addition, with the goal of achieving the legally mandated employment ratio at all of its 16 group companies in Japan*, Bridgestone has been taking systematic actions to increase this employment. As of January 2023, the total employment ratio of people with disabilities across all 16 companies (when including its special subsidiary) was 2.75%.

Bridgestone Empowerment Co., Ltd. started with seven employees with disabilities and five other staff members, but has expanded its business within the group to hire 199 employees with disabilities and 60 other staff members as of January 2023.
At the company's headquarters (Kodaira, Tokyo) and branch offices (Nagoya in Aichi, Ichikawa in Chiba, Yokohama in Kanagawa, Chuo in Tokyo, Nasushiobara in Tochigi, Ageo in Saitama, Amagi in Fukuoka and Hikone in Shiga),

  1. Harmony with local communities,
  2. Harmony with Bridgestone employees and
  3. Building environments helping employees with disabilities to be independent in society

serve as its fundamental philosophies as it aims to be a company where each and every employee can work with energy and enthusiasm. This includes helping each employee sets and takes on goals they want to achieve each year while maintaining close interaction with local organizations connected to employment of people with disabilities. The special subsidiary’s business lines include cleaning services, printing of promotional materials and business cards and mail pickup and delivery services.

In April 2011, Bridgestone also opened a vocational education and training school, Work Education Center Hikone, at its Hikone Plant to support social participation through employment and independence for people with disabilities. The center is operated by Kansai Fukushi Gakuen, an organization operating schools for social welfare. During the two-year education and training period, participants are provided education on basic knowledge and manners as members of society, as well as on-the-job training at the Hikone Plant. As of February 2023, 20 graduates have been employed at the Hikone Plant. By further promoting these efforts and expanding employment of people with disabilities, Bridgestone will contribute to the realization of a harmonious society where everyone can continue to work with peace of mind.

* 16 group companies in Japan to which Bridgestone's special subsidiary system applies (as of January 2023)

China, Asia-Pacific region

Each BSCAP employees can make a difference within its sphere of influence by taking concrete action to be more inclusive in their work.

Workplace and external engagement

Female employee receiving award for government insurance in Vietnam

As part of workplace employee and external engagement, BSCAP has various activities in building a diversity-friendly workplace recognizing its diverse talent. Thailand has a focus on empowering people with disabilities in local community striving inclusive purpose and growth – contributing to an “empowered” society that ensures accessibility and dignity for all.

Ensuring pay equity

The Group’s talent strategy is centered on building places where diverse talents can shine. As the foundation for this, the Group ensures pay equity and designs its compensation programs to be competitive in each market based on regional and country-specific labor market trends and best practices.

In Japan, Bridgestone’s compensation program establishes salaries according to "role and responsibilities," "ability to demonstrate," and "achievement and growth," and the same compensation program is used for all employees regardless of their characteristics. Compensation levels are based on a survey conducted to ensure a competitive position in the market, and salary revisions, are considered including their necessity each year based on social trends and other factors in Japan. In determining compensation for employees who are represented by labor unions, the Company holds labor-management negotiations with the Bridgestone Labor Union every spring, and revises employee salaries in accordance with agreements reached there. Regarding pay equity between male and female employees, Bridgestone’s talent portfolio shows bias among job types and in senior member ratios, resulting in wage differences. The Company is taking actions to rectify the bias in its talent portfolio through actions such as increasing the ratio of female senior members.

BSAM’s compensation program is committed to attracting, motivating and retaining employees who enable it to achieve its short and long term business goals. Its compensation practices are in compliance with federal, state and local legal requirements. BSAM ensures pay equity through the job offer process, its annual compensation practices, and periodic internal compensation reviews. External market data is leveraged to evaluate and develop competitive pay structures, which are updated annually. Additionally, short-term and long-term incentive programs are utilized to meet business needs and offer market competitive total direct compensation. These programs are reviewed and approved annually by the Succession, Nomination & Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of BSAM. Pay practices are governed by collective bargaining agreements for those hourly employees represented by labor organizations.

In BSEMIA, its compensation program is based on the principle of a market based pay for performance. The purpose of the program is to hire, engage and develop the right talents that Bridgestone needs for future growth. The drivers of the program are base pay, short and long term variable pay, and a proper benefit program. The market data are collected externally to check the local reference to ensure the adequate program. The company also holds collective bargaining agreements with labor union to ensure equity and complies with the regulations of the countries and regions where it operates. In addition, the compensation team conducts inspections every year to assure the equity, and the results are shared in the Succession, Nomination and Compensation Committee of the Board of directors of BSEMIA.

BSCAP’s compensation program aims to attract, motivate and retain the right talent with the right skills to be at the right position. Its major compensation programs which include base pay, short- and long-term incentives are designed to incentivize and motivate employees towards achieving individual’s and company’s performance goals. Annual market review is conducted regularly to ensure the programs are competitively benchmarked. These programs are also reviewed and approved annually by the Succession, Nomination and Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of BSCAP. BSCAP ensures pay equity in employees’ compensation, by taking into considerations factors including, but are not limited to their experience, skills, market competitiveness level, market specific conditions, local legislation, and performance, regardless of gender. Other applicable conditions as outlined in the labor agreement apply, for employees who are represented by labor union.

Bridgestone’s other DE&I systems (Japan)

Initiatives for balancing work and childcare

In-office daycare centers

Bridgestone has established various childcare support systems, disseminating information about these and nursing care support in the Parenting and Nursing Care Guidebook and internal newsletters. Furthermore, Bridgestone provides regular guidance to employees who plan to take childcare leave. Seminars are also held for employees, including managers, to aid the process of returning to work after childcare leave. These are part of the Company’s actions to create a workplace environment continuing to support employees during and after their return from leave. In October 2022, Bridgestone established a system for taking childcare leave at birth to encourage male employees to take leave. This system is its tool to build an environment that facilitates male employees' participation in childcare.

As part of its efforts to build work environments for greater diversity, Bridgestone has established in-office daycare centers and provides matching support with external facilities.

  • 2008: Established the corporate daycare facility, Bridgestone Kodaira Daycare Center (Tokyo)
  • 2009: Expanded eligibility for Bridgestone Kodaira Daycare Center use to all group employees, took actions to make the center the largest corporate daycare facility in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area
  • June 2013: Launched support for employees living around the Company’s headquarters in partnership with external daycare centers
  • July 2015: Launched the corporate daycare facility, Yokohama Daycare Center (Kanagawa)
  • April 2019: Moved the Yokohama Daycare Center to a new building and changed its business format to become a company-led childcare facility, expanding its capacity to 60 children
  • 2022: Introduced Childcare Future Concierge, a company-led childcare facility matching service, enhancing childcare environment support in other areas in Japan

Initiatives for balancing work and nursing care

Bridgestone works to raise awareness of nursing care, including by holding lectures on nursing care by outside experts and by publishing its Parenting and Nursing Care Guidebook.

In January 2017, Bridgestone revised its nursing care support system to further support employees in balancing work and nursing care, including a new exemption from overtime work for nursing care. Since 2018, Bridgestone has been holding nursing care seminars led by outside experts for all employees, and since 2019 for line managers specifically. These seminars provide knowledge on balancing work and nursing care for employees and their subordinates. Bridgestone regularly holds nursing care cafés as forums for caregivers to network with other caregivers. Its employees already dealing with nursing care and those concerned about the future are also provided with opportunities for individual consultations to help them resolve issues as early as possible.

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