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The structure of tires is much more complex than it seems. Here is the basic structure of passenger tires.
Passenger tires are usually constructed with five main components.


The tread is made of rubber compounds and it is the part of a tire that makes contact with the road.

Side wall

The side wall is a rubber component of a tire that covers between the tread and the bead.

Body ply

The body ply is the skeleton of a tire which is made of artificial fibers, such as polyester and rayon.


The belt provides stiffness to the tread and protect the carcass. It is usually made up of stiff steel cords.


The bead is designed to firmly grip the tire to the wheel. The beads contain a steel loop made from a bundle of fine steel wire, making the bead extremely strong.